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Agronomy Journal ; 97 : — The effect of tillage regime, row spacing, and seeding rate on feeding damage by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae , in canola in central Alberta, Canada.
Crop Protection ; 18 : — Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos ; 65 : — Tome II. Resynthesized lines and cultivars of Brassica napus L. Bulletin of Entomological Research ; : — Suggestions for unifying the terminology in biological control. Biocontrol ; 46 : — Resistance to cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae in six brassica accessions in New Zealand. Conservation of fragmented populations. Conserv Biol ; 8 : 50— Crop protection, biological control, habitat management and integrated farming, a review.
Agron Sustain Dev ; 25 : 17— Entomol Exp Appl ; 96 : 91— Species diversity and activity densities of epigaeic and flower visiting arthropods in sown weed strips and adjacent fields. The response of pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus, and the seed weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis, to oilseed rape, Brassica napus, and other plants.
J Appl Ecol ; 15 : — Multi-function agricultural biodiversity: pest management and other benefits. Basic Appl Ecol ; 4 : — Biological control methods of pest insects in oilseed rape. EPPO Bull ; 38 : — Natural enemy conservation for the integrated control of the rape blossom beetle Meligethes aeneus F. Ann Agr Fenn ; 27 : — The environmental consequences of adopting conservation tillage in Europe: reviewing the evidence. Agric Ecosyst Environ ; : 1— Low oviposition stimuli reduce egg production in the pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus.
Physiol Entomol ; 21 : — The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus, changes egg production rate to match host quality.
How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture. Environmental Health Perspectives ; : — Responses of the parasitoids of Delia radicum Diptera: Anthomyiidae to the vegetational diversity of intercrops.
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Biological Control ; 55 : — Characterization of the interactions between architecture and source-sink relationships in winter oilseed rape Brassica napus using the GreenLab model. Ann Bot ; : — Plant resistance in pest management. New York : Wiley, : 73— Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and enhancement.
The abundance of arthropods along two field margins with different types of vegetation composition: an experimental study. An improved methodology for integrated crop management systems. Agronomy for Sustainable Development ; 27 : — Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. Annu Rev Entomol ; 45 : — Yield losses associated with 2 successive pests Ceuthorrhynchus napi Gyll. Agronomie ; 8 : — Agricultural Systems ; 72 : 9— Straw incorporation trials reveal arable slug damage will increase.
Agr Int ; 43 : — Mixing plant species in cropping systems: concepts, tools and models. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development ; 28 : 1—2. Agricultural landscapes: Field margin habitats and their interaction with crop production. J Crop Improvement ; 12 : — Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science ; : — Agronomy for Sustainable Development ; 31 : — Agronomic approach: cropping systems and plant diseases.
Comptes Rendus Biologies ; 37— Impact of ploughing on emergence of pollen beetle parasitoids after hibernation. Z Angew Entomol ; : — Pollen Beetle Meligethes aeneus spp in oilseed rape crops Brassica napus L. Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Use of sown wildflower strips to enhance natural enemies of agricultural pest. In: Gurr GM, et al.
Enhancing biological control: Habitat management to promote natural enemies of agricultural pests. Habitat management for enhancing biological control: benefits and pitfalls. Landscape epidemiology of plant diseases. Uh-oh, it looks like your Internet Explorer is out of date.
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This approach is particularly timely because of the development in Europe of insecticide resistance in the pollen beetle, a major pest of the crop. The past decade has seen considerable progress in our knowledge of the parasitoids and predators that contribute to biocontrol, of their distribution patterns, and their behavioural ecology, both within and without the crop. There is potential for natural enemy conservation through modification of within-field crop husbandry practices, as well as, on the landscape scale, through habitat manipulation to encourage vegetational diversity.
The Major Insect Pests of Oilseed Rape in Europe and Their Management: An Overview - Dimensions
This book will prove invaluable as a text for researchers, university teachers, graduate scientists, extension workers and growers involved in integrated pest management. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Systemic insecticides move via the xylem to the leaves of the plant; transport back to other parts of the plant, including flowers, can only occur via the phloem and studies indicate that very little is transported this way [ 21 , 22 ]. As a result, residue levels in nectar and pollen are expected to be low. This is corroborated by existing data that confirm exposure via pollen and nectar of treated crops is negligible [ 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ].
Nonetheless, numerous groups have questioned the potential for non-target insects, especially pollinators, to be exposed to seed treatment insecticides via the pollen and nectar of plants grown from treated seeds. This has led to numerous questions regarding the validity of using seed treatment insecticides as a preventative treatment and raised the profile of IPM among a wide range of stakeholder groups.
While seed treatment insecticides are used on a broad range of field crops across Canada—including canola, alfalfa, mustard, potato seed, cereals, lentils, peas, chickpeas, and soy—canola is perhaps the best model system to evaluate the potential impacts of seed treatment insecticides on beneficial and non-target species. This is for a number of reasons, some of which will be discussed briefly below.
Canola is extremely attractive to bees [ 27 ] and represents a primary forage crop for honeybees in Western Canada where it is grown on 18—21 million acres annually. These data are consistent with those reported from a production scale study of five NNI treated and five untreated fields where researchers found NNI pollen residue from 0. At a macro-scale, number of managed honey bee colonies has continued to increase in Western Canada concurrent with an increase in canola acreage from 6. Residues in nectar and pollen were measured and ranged from 0 to 2.
No effects were found from exposure to nectar and pollen on honeybees, bumble bees, or Osmia sp. Residues from NNI in winter-sown oilseed rape pollen and nectar did not appear to affect bees but summer oilseed rape needs to be evaluated as well since seeding rates are higher for spring-sown oilseed rape and this may have an effect on exposure levels [ 28 ]. A French study indicated that ingestion of sublethal doses of thiamethoxam by honeybees could impact homing ability in semi-field tests [ 29 ].
Homing flight is a criterion used to assess sublethal effects of compounds on bees since it is a complex behavior that requires numerous biological processes including memory, motor function, orientation and flight [ 29 ]. A follow-up study conducted in and looked at free-ranging honeybees exposed to thiamethoxam trade name Cruiser as they foraged in an oilseed rape-dominant environment in western France [ 30 ].
In that study, researchers tagged 10, honeybees and studied the impact of thiamethoxam exposure on lifespan and homing behaviour on individual bees and the downstream impacts on colony viability. The researchers concluded that exposure to thiamethoxam under field-realistic conditions did result in reduced lifespan and increased homing failure in honeybees; however, these effects had no negative impact at the colony level. Guttation is the excretion of droplets of xylem liquid at the tips or edges of leaves and it occurs more frequently in monocotyledon plants than in dicotyledons [ 28 ].
Guttation occurs when plants are sufficiently hydrated and transpiration is limited or inhibited e. While the risk of exposure of bees to neonicotinoids via guttation water was always assumed to be low, residues are detected in guttation at sufficiently high concentrations to warrant further research. Researchers at JKI conducted three field trials and 1 semi-field trial in winter oilseed rape looking at potential effects from exposures to guttation water and reported no observed impacts on colony development including bee brood or acute bee mortality [ 28 ].
Biodiversity in canola fields is currently very high. Over species of ground beetles, greater than species of spiders, numerous Staphylinids rove beetles , and at least species of carabid beetles are commonly found in Canadian canola agroecosystems [ 31 ]. Canola fields also play host to a diverse range of beneficial insects including more than identified species of parasitoid wasps comprising Ichneumonidae and Braconidae [ 31 ]; numerous species of native pollinators; and native predators such as lacewings Chrysoperla spp.
There is tremendous ecological and economic value in promoting and preserving these species in canola canopies; broad scale foliar application of foliar insecticides would dramatically reduce this beneficial insect biodiversity. In summary, the Western Canadian canola experience indicates that ISTs, as part of an IPM program, have not led to a reduction in populations of managed pollinators and beneficial insects.
Honeybee numbers in Western Canada have increased; arthropod biodiversity in IST canola is strong; and canola plays host to numerous beneficial species including predators, parasitoids, and pollinators that all have utility for canola production.
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The key for sustainable agricultural production will be to expand our monitoring of both pest and beneficial insect species, develop predictive models for their occurrence and density and re-examine biological control of key canola pests within context of better understanding of the role of beneficial insects such as predators and parasitoids. Furthermore, the use of insecticide seed treatments has helped to increase crop yield and profitability by facilitating earlier planting and producing a vigorous crop that is better able to handle environmental stresses.
This has led to improved canopy cover and more flowers per plant [ 13 ].
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