The industry began as a tool for labor leaders to preach unionism and a cultural product popular among workers and immigrants in urban centers. The popularization of the industry among a middle- and eventually upper-class public brought dramatic changes in conceptions of Americanism as the screen emerged as a powerful tool for national unity.
Introduction in: Memory and popular film
General overview studies focus on how the politics of the screen impacted American cultural values by pitting the values of a white, Protestant, Victorian culture against those of a more democratic working-class culture derived from newly arrived immigrants. During the s, as the industry grew, sociologists sought to understand the structure and social impact of Hollywood on American culture Thorp By World War II, entertainment on the silver screen had become a weapon of war, and the concern over the use of movies in spreading political ideology permeated postwar political debates, ultimately culminating in the House Un-American Activities Committee investigation into the Communist subversion of the motion picture industry.
Amidst popular concern about the propaganda power of Hollywood films, Powdermaker presented a critical analysis of the studio system and its economic structures and cultural influence just as the vertical studio system itself had begun to splinter under legal decree. While previous works such as Thorp and Powdermaker presented a sociological examination of the motion picture community, Sklar and Jowett offer scholarly analyses about the cultural impact of Hollywood Jewish entrepreneurs as they challenged the dominant Protestant political and social hierarchies.
Subsequent scholars have shifted their focus to how the consumer-based, democratic culture promoted by Hollywood as an industry impacted and reflected broader changes into the political culture of the United States over the course of the 20th century. Ross examines the ways that political pressures impact the production of motion pictures through a combination of scholarly articles and primary source documents.
Critchlow and Raymond also provides a range of primary sources for scholars to see the variety of ways that film and celebrities have impacted national politics. Ross divides celebrity activism into six categories: visual politics, electoral politics, issue-oriented politics, movement politics, image politics, and celebrity politics Ross Scholarship on celebrity political activism shows not just the political experiences or impact of one individual but also the broader power of celebrity-driven publicity to shape strategies of political communication in the increasingly mass-media-oriented world Giglio , Peretti , and Brownell , cited under Studio System Era.
Critchlow, Donald, and Emilie Raymond, ed. Hollywood and Politics: A Sourcebook. London: Routledge, This sourcebook presents a compilation of primary sources that examines intersections of Hollywood and politics in the electoral realm, public policy, propaganda efforts, social movements, and the construction of cultural values. Giglio, Ernest. Peter Lang, Examines both the historical relationship between film and politics on the silver screen and in the political arena, ultimately advancing an analysis of how the lines between entertainment and politics and more broadly fantasy and reality have become muddled over the course of the 20th century.
Film: The Democratic Art. New York: Little, Brown, Examines how the motion picture industry dramatically transformed American society from a fragmented rural nation to an urbanized society with shared cultural values.
Theory & Event
Rather than focusing on movie productions, Jowett examines the makeup of audiences, censorship pressures, and business structure of the Hollywood that ultimately raised consumption expectations and standards among American citizens. Peretti, Burt. Explores the political use of Hollywood imagery to promote presidents and their policies. Powdermaker, Hortense. Hollywood: The Dream Factory.
Boston: Little, Brown, Written by an anthropologist, this book offers a critical study of what Powdermaker calls the oppressive economic structures and pressures of the studio system. Ross, Steven.
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New York: Oxford University Press, Examines the political activism of Charlie Chaplin, Louis B. Mayer, Edward G. Robinson, George Murphy, Ronald Reagan, Harry Belafonte, Jane Fonda, Charlton Heston, Warren Beatty, and Arnold Schwarzenegger to show strategies employed by celebrity activists to push for political change on the left and the right over the course of the 20th century.web.difccourts.ae/top-secret-ipc-mexico-operando-con-medias.php
The Politics of Hollywood Cinema: Popular Film and Contemporary Political Theory
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